Understanding Type 2 Diabetes: An In-Depth Guide

Understanding Type 2 Diabetes

Task 01: Causes and Effects of Type 2 Diabetes

Causes of Type 2 Diabetes

Type 2 diabetes is a long-lasting condition which is defined by insulin resistance and insufficient insulin production.

Genetic Factors: Genetic predisposition and family history are some of the key factors that can increase one’s chances of being diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes. Some genes can alter the body’s insulin production and utilisation.

Lifestyle Factors: Some of the main causes include unhealthy diet, physical inactivity and obesity. The chances are also high when one takes a diet full of processed foods, sugary drinks, and unhealthy fats.

Age: Diabetes type 2 is more common in individuals above 45 years of age.

Ethnic Background: Some of the populations at a higher risk include the African American, Hispanic/Latino, Native American, and Asian American populations.

Other Health Conditions: Some of the factors that may lead to Type 2 diabetes include high blood pressure and abnormal cholesterol levels.

Effects of Type 2 Diabetes

Type 2 diabetes can have a profound impact on overall health, leading to both short-term and long-term complications:

Cardiovascular Disease: Diabetes patients are more likely to develop heart diseases and stroke.

Nerve Damage (Neuropathy): High amounts of glucose can damage the blood vessel walls that supply nerves, especially those in the legs.

Kidney Damage (Nephropathy): Diabetes can cause kidney failure or end-stage kidney disease that cannot be reversed and may need dialysis or kidney transplantation.

Eye Damage (Retinopathy): Diabetes also poses a threat to one’s eyesight as it can cause cataracts, glaucoma, and even blindness.

Foot Damage: Poor circulation in the feet or damage to nerves in the feet can lead to various foot problems.

Task 02: Clinical Investigations Associated with the Diagnosis of Type 2 Diabetes

Diagnosing Type 2 diabetes involves several clinical investigations to measure blood glucose levels and assess overall health:

Fasting Blood Sugar Test: Checks the level of glucose in the blood when the patient has not eaten for at least 8 hours. If the fasting blood glucose test is 126 mg/dL or higher on two separate occasions, then the person is considered to have diabetes.

Glycated Haemoglobin (A1C) Test: Gives an idea about the average blood sugar level of the past 2-3 months. An A1C level of 6. Fasting plasma glucose level of 5. 0 mmol/L or higher on two separate occasions is diagnostic of diabetes.

Random Blood Sugar Test: Tests for blood sugar without regard for when the last meal was eaten. A level of 200 mg/dL or higher is considered to be diabetic, particularly if the patient also has symptoms of diabetes.

Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT): Takes blood sugar levels before and after taking a sweet beverage. Diabetes is diagnosed when the blood sugar level is 200 mg/dL or higher two hours after consuming the liquid. Further tests may be done to check for potential side effects or general health status, including cholesterol levels, blood urea levels, and eye examinations.

Task 03: Services that are offered to Service Users with Type 2 Diabetes

Managing Type 2 diabetes involves a comprehensive approach that includes lifestyle changes, medication, and regular monitoring:

Lifestyle Changes 15. Healthy Eating: It is recommended to consume foods that are low in refined carbohydrates and high in fibre, vitamins, and lean proteins while avoiding sugary drinks to maintain proper blood sugar levels.

Regular Physical Activity: Physical activity is effective in reducing blood sugar levels and enhancing the body’s ability to respond to insulin. It is recommended to engage in at least 150 minutes of moderate aerobic activity per week.

Weight Management: Losing weight through a combination of diet and exercise can help to manage blood sugar levels and prevent complications. Medications

Metformin: Commonly used as the first drug for Type 2 diabetes, it helps in decreasing glucose synthesis in the liver and increasing insulin receptor sensitivity.

Sulfonylureas: These drugs work by provoking the pancreas to secrete insulin.

Insulin Therapy: People with Type 2 diabetes may require insulin therapy to control their blood glucose levels.

GLP-1 Receptor Agonists: These drugs are useful in reducing blood sugar levels by enhancing insulin production and reducing glucagon secretion. Support and Education

Diabetes Education Programs: These programs contain important information about how to care for diabetes such as diet, exercise and medication.

Regular Monitoring: It is also important to have blood glucose monitoring and routine health check-ups to determine the effectiveness of diabetes management and make necessary alterations.

Support Groups: It is helpful to meet other people who also have diabetes as they can offer encouragement and tips. Your Reliable Assignment Help Partner

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